Venezuela’s Vanishing Billions
This report is taken from www.100r.org, an organization formed by journalists from all over the world.
Nearly $30 billion is missing from a Venezuelan national development fund controlled by President Hugo Chávez, who appears to have diverted some of the missing money to his political allies in other countries, while much of the rest remains unaccounted for. The money came from a $69.4 billion fund for development aid, known as Fonden, which is designed to take public money, largely from Venezuela’s state-run oil company and its Central Bank, and use it on domestic development projects such as highways, schools, factories and hospitals. For years in Venezuela, critics of the president have
nicknamed Fonden “Chávez’s slush fund.” Information only now becoming public shows that is not far off the mark: El Fondo de Desarrollo Nacional, as it is formally known, operates outside the Venezuelan National Assembly’s budget process and largely beyond public scrutiny, answerable only to a board of directors and to Chávez himself. While it was long known that Chávez’s fingers were close to Fonden, the first accurate accounting of the amount missing – measured in the billions – came to light in August, after a Venezuelan lawmaker, Carlos Ramos, managed to obtain from the Venezuelan Finance Ministry a comprehensive list of Fonden projects and, separately, a breakdown of contributions to the fund and allocations over the years. A comparison of the two documents uncovered a gaping $29 billion shortfall between the money allocated for projects, and the actual projects on record.
After studying the accounts with a “fine tooth comb,” Russ Dallen, head of Caracas capital markets for BBO investment bank, wrote in a recent newsletter that his firm had discovered that $28.5 billion was missing from some $69.45 billion the Latin American oil-rich country had allocated to 140 projects through Fonden. Chávez established Fonden with initial funding of $6 million in oil revenues, as a private company under direct control of the executive branch. Fonden’s mission was to finance national investments in education, health, agriculture and “any other project that needs funding in the opinion of [Fonden’s] Board, upon approval of the President of the Republic.” It now appears, Dallen said, that much of the missing funds instead went to Chávez’s political allies in the region in Bolivia, Cuba and Nicaragua, who belong to a group known as the Alianza Bolivariana, para los Pueblos de Nuestra America, or ALBA. “The current system of foreign cooperation has no legal underpinnings, nor does it even need one in an autocratic regime like Chávez’s,” Gustavo Coronel, a political analyst and former representative to Transparency International told www.100r.org . “It is he who decides when, how much and to whom the nation’s funds are allotted.”
The $29 billion disparity was first reported by a Venezuelan blogger, Miguel Octavio, who also posted copies of the underlying documents online. The Venezuelan government declined to comment for this story. Through a spokesman, Finance Minister Jorge Giordani dismissed the allegations as “false information.” These new charges of corruption have put the spotlight once again on Chávez, whose government has been accused in the past of squandering the country’s vast oil resources under a cloak of secrecy. Chávez’s “Bolivarian” revolution
Nicaragua’s octopus-like ALBANISA One big beneficiary of Chávez’s murky largess has been his ALBA ally, President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua.While using some of the millions of dollars his government receives from Venezuela on public projects, Ortega has used the Fonden money as a kind of private kitty for himself and his inner circle. Take ALBANISA, a private company created by Ortega to invest money coming to his government from Venezuela. This company, formally known as ALBA deNicaragua, S.A., came about through an agreement between oil agencies of the two countries. Under the agreement, ALBANISA controls the monopoly of oil imports from Venezuela and the marketing of its derivatives. Under the oil cooperation agreement between the two governments, 50 percent of the oil bill must be paid within 90 days, while the other 50 percent is converted into a 23-year-loan with a two-year of grace period and two percent annual interest, all of which is handled at the discretion of the government of Nicaragua through ALBANISA and Caruna (CajaRural Nacional), a cooperative. Of the revenues that stay in Nicaragua, half are meant to go to domestic social programs, while the rest goes to the coffers of ALBANISA itself, according to the Council on Hemispheric Affairs.
Between 2008 and 2010, ALBANISA received $1.415 billion from Venezuela under the label “state cooperation”, according to Nicaragua’s Central Bank. Much like Fonden, ALBANISA operates as a private company with no public oversight. Ortega and his associates have used ALBANISA to build a private business empire that blurs the line between what is public money and what accrues to Ortega and those close to him. As a private company, ALBANISA has discretionary authority to manage, without accountability, state programs, grants, donations, loans, investments (none included in the national budget); to own private businesses (such as a TV station and a hotel) and to finance the official FSLN party campaigns when needed.
An investigation carried out by the Nicaraguan journalist Carlos Fernando Chamorro disclosed that ALBANISA has, in fact, become “a huge conglomerate” which, since its creation in 2007, has grown like an octopus –with power plants, agricultural exports and transportation businesses, construction equipment, as well as farming, importing and fuel distribution outfits. As part of his reporting, Chamorro was able to obtain an Excel copy of Albanisa’s accounts covering the years 2007 and 2008, as well as over eight months of operations in 2009. (http://www.confidencial.com.ni/articulo/3388/las-cuentas-secretas-de-albanisa ). The documents show that ALBANISA is slowly becoming an economic empire in Nicaragua. “It’s a sweet deal, one in which the recipient does not have to account for the money it receives, in what is the largest private transaction ever negotiated in Nicaragua without any tender,” Chamorro told 100Reporters. It is also “a mechanism that privatizes a state cooperative agreement, which owns a holding company and private investments in various fields —all outside the national budget—with discretionary use of funds for private and for the official Sandinista party activities”, he added.
Since 2006, when Ortega won the elections with 38 percent of the vote, Chávez has sent electricity generators to Nicaragua worth $289 million, to help the country overcome its chronic blackouts. In 2007, when Nicaragua laid the first stone for an oil refinery that has yet to be built, Venezuela pardoned “without conditions” Nicaragua’s debt of $33.2 million. But there’s a catch. In Nicaragua at least, Venezuela’s support through ALBA comes with legal loopholes that allow some to make profit –mostly those in power, their associates and family members. Asdrubal Chávez Jimenez, the Venezuelan leader’s cousin, is president of the Nicaraguan subsidiary of Venezuela’s state-owned oil monopoly, for example. And Juan Carlos Ortega Murillo, President Ortega’s son, now runs TN8, a national television channel bought with ALBA funds. Many in Venezuela, and elsewhere in Latin America, are alarmed by the lack of accountability. José Cordeiro, director of Venezuela Node at The Millennium Project www.millennium-project.org ), a U.N. project to reduce world poverty, hunger and disease, said that revenues from Venezuela’s state-owned oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., or PDVSA, are a mystery, despite their vital importance to the country’s economic health. “It’s beyond the control of the national budget, to the point that nobody knows PDVSA’s real production,” Cordeiro said. In addition, Chávez has also “used foreign private companies to conduct some of his personal business,” as well as that of his ALBA partners, Cordeiro added in an interview with 100Reporters. Mendez, the energy expert, agreed. “These discretionary and ‘personal’ agreements” between the state owned oil companies in Nicaragua and Venezuela, he said, “highlight the absence of accountability in our nation, one that our Constitution clearly demands, because neither President Chávez, nor any of his ministers, are held accountable for anything.”